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July 25, 2022,
22:00 CEST

Heat wave
Central and Western Europe
18 - 22 July

Maximum 2m Temperatures from July 18 to 20, analysis data (AROME)
Source: Meteofrance

The second heat wave of the 2022 European Summer led to many absolute temperature records in France, United Kingdom and Germany. Temperatures reached 40.3 °C in UK (Coningsby Royal Air Force Base) and 40.1 °C in Germany (Hamburg).

Beginning on July 18, large parts of Europe experienced a new heat wave. As usual, the heat wave hit western France first, before the center of activity shifted further east and thus also over Germany. In the course of the heat wave, numerous temperature records were set in France, Germany and, in particular, the United Kingdom. The combination of a cut-off trough and a ridge over western Europe directed extremely warm air masses from the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean region and Africa to Central Europe. 850 hPa temperatures in the range of 25 °C over western France and parts of the United Kingdom enabled daily highs in the range of 40 °C and more at sea level.

500 hPa Geopotential and sea level pressure, July 18 - 20, source: wetter3

On Monday, July 18, the low humidity in the air mass residing over Germany (dew point < 5 °C in many places in southern Germany) caused significant diurnal temperature variations. Humidity has a considerable influence on the heat capacity of air - dry air has a low heat capacity and can therefore be heated quickly during the day, but it also cools down strongly at night. Thus, new daily records for the lowest temperature were set at 19 stations yesterday. In Schorndorf-Knöbling (398 m above sea level) the thermometer dropped to 6.3 °C, as low as never before on a July 18 in the 27-year time series. During the day, it was hot: New daily and decade records for the daily maximum temperature were set at many stations. In Neunkirchen-Wellesweiler (236 m), for example, 35.3 °C were registered - a new record for the middle decade of July in the 50-year time series. Interesting: At some stations, among others in the Wetterpark Offenbach, yesterday's Monday caused daily records for both low and high temperatures. It has never been as cold in Offenbach on July 18 as yesterday (12.0 °C) and also never as warm as yesterday (34.4 °C).

2 m temperature analysis, July 19 and 20 source: Meteofrance

While temperatures failed to reach the 40 °C mark in Germany on Tuesday, July 19, 2022, more than 40 °C was measured in the British Isles for the first time in measurement history. The, only in 2019 established, temperature record for England was exceeded by 1.6 K on Tuesday. A new Welsh temperature record was already set in Hawarden on Monday. At 37.1 °C, the previous record of 35.2 °C, measured at the same location in 1990, was beaten by 1.9 K. The previous temperature record was also pulverized in Scotland yesterday. The previous record of 32.9 °C, measured at Greycook in 2003, was beaten by 1.9 K when 34.8 °C was recorded at the Charterhall station. As mentioned above, the temperature record for England was also broken, thus also the all-time record for the United Kingdom. At the station Coningsby yesterday 40.3 °C was measured, thus the reading was 1.6 K above the previous record of 38.7 °C from the station Cambridge University Botanic Garden from 2019. At a number of stations yesterday the previous temperature record for the United Kingdom was set or beaten.

Forest fire index from July 21 until July 25, source: DWD

At the station Bad Mergentheim-Neunkirchen, a temperature of 40.3 °C was reported in the late afternoon on July 20. This value would mean a new absolute record for the state of Baden-Württemberg (previous record: 40.2 °C). During a subsequent verification, the correctness of the measurement was confirmed, but special characteristics of the surrounding buildings and vegetation were found, so that the measured value was not considered to be representative for the environment. The measured value is therefore not considered a new record and the previous record of 40.2 °C, measured in Karlsruhe on 09 August 2003, remains.

Text: FS
July 25, 2022

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